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Science Physics education online: earth faces more and more dust storms, wild fires, droughts and floods. Climate conservation education: energy production needs a lot of water and produces a lot of pollution
Expanding Deserts, Falling Water Tables, Toxic Pollutants Driving People from Their Homes
Lester R. Brown

People do not normally leave their homes, their families, and their communities unless they have no other option. Yet as environmental stresses mount, we can expect to see a growing number of environmental refugees. Rising seas and increasingly devastating storms grab headlines, but expanding deserts, falling water tables, and toxic waste and radiation are also forcing people from their homes.

Advancing deserts are now on the move almost everywhere. The Sahara desert, for example, is expanding in every direction. As it advances northward, it is squeezing the populations of Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria against the Mediterranean coast. The Sahelian region of Africa—the vast swath of savannah that separates the southern Sahara desert from the tropical rainforests of central Africa—is shrinking as the desert moves southward. As the desert invades Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, from the north, farmers and herders are forced southward, squeezed into a shrinking area of productive land. A 2006 U.N. conference on desertification in Tunisia projected that by 2020 up to 60 million people could migrate from sub-Saharan Africa to North Africa and Europe.

In Iran, villages abandoned because of spreading deserts or a lack of water number in the thousands. In Brazil, some 250,000 square miles of land are affected by desertification, much of it concentrated in the country’s northeast. In Mexico, many of the migrants who leave rural communities in arid and semiarid regions of the country each year are doing so because of desertification. Some of these environmental refugees end up in Mexican cities, others cross the northern border into the United States. U.S. analysts estimate that Mexico is forced to abandon 400 square miles of farmland to desertification each year.

In China, desert expansion has accelerated in each successive decade since 1950. Desert scholar Wang Tao reports that over the last half-century or so some 24,000 villages in northern and western China have been abandoned either entirely or partly because of desert expansion.

China is heading for a Dust Bowl like the one that forced more than 2 million “Okies” to leave their land in the United States in the 1930s. But the dust bowl forming in China is much larger and so is the population: China’s migration may measure in the tens of millions. And as a U.S. embassy report entitled Grapes of Wrath in Inner Mongolia noted, “unfortunately, China’s twenty-first century ‘Okies’ have no California to escape to—at least not in China.”

With the vast majority of the 2.3 billion people projected to be added to the world by 2050 being born in countries where water tables are falling, water refugees are likely to become commonplace. They will be most common in arid and semiarid regions where populations are outgrowing the water supply and sinking into hydrological poverty. Villages in northwestern India are being abandoned as aquifers are depleted and people can no longer find water. Millions of villagers in northern and western China and in northern Mexico may have to move because of a lack of water.

Thus far the evacuations resulting from water shortages have been confined to villages, but eventually whole cities might have to be relocated, such as Sana’a, the capital of Yemen, and Quetta, the capital of Pakistan’s Baluchistan province. Sana’a, a fast-growing city of more than 2 million people, is literally running out of water. Quetta, originally designed for 50,000 people, now has a population exceeding 1 million, all of whom depend on 2,000 wells pumping water from what is believed to be a fossil aquifer. In the words of one study assessing its water prospect, Quetta will soon be “a dead city.”

Two other semiarid Middle Eastern countries that are suffering from water shortages are Syria and Iraq. Both are beginning to reap the consequences of overpumping their aquifers, namely irrigation wells going dry. In Syria, these trends have forced the abandonment of 160 villages. And a U.N. report estimates that more than 100,000 people in northern Iraq have been uprooted because of water shortages.

A final category of environmental refugee has appeared only in the last 50 years or so: people who are trying to escape toxic waste or dangerous radiation levels. During the late 1970s, Love Canal—a small town in upstate New York, part of which was built on top of a toxic waste disposal site—made national and international headlines. Beginning in August 1978, families were relocated at government expense and reimbursed for their homes at market prices. By October 1980, a total of 950 families had been permanently relocated. A few years later, the federal government arranged for the permanent evacuation and relocation of all 2,000 residents of Times Beach, Missouri, after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discovered dioxin levels well above the public health standards.

While the United States has relocated two communities because of health-damaging pollutants, the identification of more than 450 “cancer villages” in China suggests the need to evacuate hundreds of communities. China’s Ministry of Health statistics show that cancer is now the country’s leading cause of death, and with little pollution control, whole communities near chemical factories are suffering from unprecedented rates of cancer. Young people are leaving for the city in droves, for jobs and possibly for better health. Yet many others are too sick or too poor to leave.

Another infamous source of environmental refugees is the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Kiev, which exploded in April 1986. This started a powerful fire that lasted for 10 days. Massive amounts of radioactive material were spewed into the atmosphere, showering communities in the region with heavy doses of radiation. As a result, the residents of the nearby town of Pripyat and several other communities in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were evacuated, requiring the resettlement of 350,400 people. In 1992, six years after the accident, Belarus was devoting 20 percent of its national budget to resettlement and the many other costs associated with the accident.

When a devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan in March 2011, the ensuing nuclear crisis at the badly damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant forced tens of thousands of people from their homes. Whether they will be able to return or will become permanently displaced is a question that remains unanswered.

Separating out the geneses of today’s refugees is not always easy. Often the environmental and economic stresses that drive migration are closely intertwined. But whatever the reason for leaving home, people are taking increasingly desperate measures. Some of their stories are heartrending beyond belief.

As a general matter, environmental refugees are migrating from poor countries to rich ones, from Africa, Asia, and Latin America to North America and Europe. Some of the largest flows will be across national borders and they are likely to be illegal. The potentially massive movement of people across national boundaries is already affecting some countries. The United States is erecting a fence along the border with Mexico. The Mediterranean Sea is now routinely patrolled by naval vessels trying to intercept the small boats of African migrants bound for Europe. India, with a steady stream of migrants from Bangladesh and the prospect of millions more to come, is building a 10-foot-high fence along their shared border.

Maybe it is time for governments to consider whether it might not be cheaper and far less painful in human terms to treat the causes of migration rather than merely respond to it. This means working with developing countries to restore their economy’s natural support systems—the soils, the water tables, the grasslands, the forests—and it means accelerating the shift to smaller families to help people break out of poverty. Treating symptoms instead of causes is not good medicine. Nor is it good public policy.

Adapted from World on the Edge by Lester R. Brown.
Full book available online at www.earth-policy.org/books/wote


Science education online Physics: earth faces floods, violent weather events, wild fires, droughts, flooding. Climate education: energy production needs a lot of water


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Fuel cells chemical device reacts with different chemicals. Hydrogen fuel cells deliver electricity, producing water + clean energy. No greenhouse gases, keeping earth carbon cycle in balance
Help us to protect Nature!
join protect earth - work with BSB internationally to tackle climate change + global warming, to strengthen international nature conservation, better use of oil, to conserve endangered species, to protect Earth water cycle for healthy water supplies. Changing world climate endangers wildlife - in oceans whales, dolphins, in our air many birds, butterflies are endangered, plants, humans are on endangered species list. Join international nonprofit group, help to create a better future for our children


Pollution, a bod threat to mankind. Affordable conservation education on your computer with Science education + training courses online, on the internet: Pollution of water, air, soil, oceans; all ingredients are more or less polluted. BSB connects environmental pollution with problems with a polluted food supply, endangered health, with less happiness
Air Pollution

BSB education economy: Definition of Sustainability: capacity of maintaining certain processes. International sustainability: connection of biological + human systems. Ecologically, sustainability or green living, going green, sustainable lifestyle: ability of an ecosystem to maintain ecological processes, functions, biodiversity + productivity into the future. Sustainability effects life on Earth, different levels of biological systems, wetlands, prairies + forests. International Eco-friendly living, sustainable cities, international sustainable agriculture, sustainable architecture + development. Sustainable research achieves sustainable environments
Nature education online by Peter Bonenberger + Marianne Bonenberger, founders of the international charitable nonprofit Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation: photos of nature can help to understand life on Earth, to see how nature works, to have a better life
Photos of Nature

Nature preserve of international charitable nonprofit organization 501(c)(3) Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, Texas Hill Country. president Peter Bonenberger, Vice president Bob Taylor, protects + conserves Nature globally, promotes international science based nature education + nature conservation with educational trail, lectures, presentations Peter Bonenberger + Marianne Bonenberger published many booklets, videos, information brochures. A photo book providing personal info about How I got to Pipe Creek TX. Affordable Nature education online web pages + learning materials, booklets. Definition Nature Conservation: Nature means Earth's natural world - Conservation is to maintain, to protect, to keep alive. Master Conservationist Peter Bonenberger + online education science educator Marianne Bonenberger publish books, information brochures. Online photo book providing nature photos + text about Bear Springs Blossom Nature preserve, why environmental protection is important, learn from history, overgrazing endangerment, Texas Hill Country native plants. Online books are part of BSB online education programs. Definition: Nature education: Updated your knowledge to have a better life. Humans need to maintain, to update, to keep Nature alive, so they can survive
P + M book

Conservation education science Geography online: Earth facts about diameter, circumference, info on earth's orbital speed, earth surface area, earth's land area. Learn about Earth, have a better life
Earth facts


volunteers are the life blood of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation international charitable nonprofit organization. Volunteers donate time online to help with articles, public relations, volunteer to maintain websites, volunteer teaching conservation education, providing international nature education for people all over earth. Volunteering for our nonprofit group has no boundaries, no physical requirements, all ages, all countries. Volunteer!

Nature on Earth was beautiful, Nature was in balance, intact food-chain for all animals, native wildlife, flora + fauna. Enjoy photo slide show Keep Nature beautiful, natural beauty all around the globe. Update your conservation nature education, see why, what to protect, conserve, preserve
BSB slogan keep Earth clean: huge trash piles endanger air, drinking water, food, kill wildlife, reduce biodiversity. Recycling to keep Earth clean, fight pollution. Recycled materials reduce landfills. Recycle for clean water, less severe weather, to empower Nature conservation
BSB slogan keep Earth beautiful with Nature conservation. Affordable Science based education online to save Earth, to keep biodiversity, to help animals, flora, fauna on earth to survive, to give humans a healthy life on earth, reducing the impact of global warming + erosion, keeping Nature beautiful done by BSB volunteers. Education can reduce climate change on Earth! Nature conservation through conservation education: affordable solution, a sustainable lifestyle. Missing knowledge water contamination, biodiversity, recycling
Glaciers melt
Keep Earth clean

BSB members work to keep
Buenos Aires
Neu-Ulm
Kellmuenz
Hunt TX
The Indus river
beautiful!!

Nature is Art
Culture exchange international: Art inspires minds, art to understand environmental problems, art beauty of nature, art helps to understand nature conservation, nature is art - a great plan produces art = living beings. Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation members Marianne Bonenberger, Bill Ward, express feelings of intact beautiful Nature with art photography, articles + artistic music

Nature info
Nature Encyclopedia

About flora
Biology, botany Texas wildflowers, native plants on nature trails, birding trails, wilderness trails at Bear Springs Blossom Nature preserve, Hill Country Texas. BSB nonprofit provides environmental wildflower knowledge. See wild flowers, wildflowers blue blossoms, white blossoms, tree blossoms, flowering native shrubs, red bud flowers + Madrone blossoms. Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation's nature education programs online. Salvia, tropical sage, cedar sage, all wild flowers, or native shrubs flowering, red to pink flowers; wild flowers at BSB Texas Hill Country nature reserve in the heart of Texas, guided tours, become a master conservationist. Botany: Nature conservation protects Pearl Milkvine, Matelea reticulata, twining vine growing on limestone, Texas Hill Country. Science biology: native plant photos
Salvia
Sage big red
Science Botany online classes: earth star, astraeus hygrometricus, native fungus at Nature Preserve of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, TX
Pearl vine
BSB Botany: mushrooms, fungi grow in varieties. Nature conservation teaches that mushrooms, fungi are needed to balance Nature. Mushroom photos, fungi, science by Bear Springs Blossom Nature Preserve, Nature conservation center

Mexican oak or Monterrey oak, native tree, no pesticides, less water, oaks are good shade trees
Mexican redbud, cercis mexicana, TX native tree, no pesticides, less water, cercis are beautiful native trees in many southern countries
Madrone, Madrona, Indians leg, peeling tree, arbutus, rare trees in Texas Hill Country. Madrones grow new bark every year. Bear Springs Blossom nature preserve has over 300 madrone, nature conservation works with science based nature education, teaching the importance of intact nature habitats. Madrone trees, to provide food for birds, joy to humans
Nature education online: Biology + Botany: Junipers, Latin juniperus ashei: trees, shrubs found all over Earth - preferring limestone. juniperus ashei native to Texas for millions of years. Nature conservation, nature education explains why the Texas Hill Country has too many junipers. Native Texas Junipers trees grow up to 80 ft for 200 years. Texas Cedar juniper provides juniper berries for birds, makes good mulch, helps native plants to grow. Juniper is a nursery plant - very important for nature conservation, essential to humans
Overgrowth TX cedar, Latin juniperus ashei: Overgrazing helped TX Junipers. Juniper is no cedar, needed for nature conservation building up soil for native plants, reducing erosion
Mangroves
BSB nature education includes changing colors in fall, autumn, using leaves for mulch. Nature education offers understanding why oak, cherry, elm leaves change colors in fall = autumn
TX grasses
Turf Grass
international nonprofit organization Bear Springs Blossom Nature conservation protects international rain-forests. Humans need rain forests for medicine, for oxygen through photosynthesis, for stabilizing Earth's climate. See earth map. Tropical trees reduce international climate change + global warming - rain forest maps. Global locations of tropical + temperate rain-forests. Rain forest habitats need protection

About fauna
Nature conservation facts: Nature lovers + birders like Birding on birding trails with guided tours. Golden cheeked Warbler, an endangered bird breeding only in Texas Hill Country, see tanager, wren, mocking bird, tit mouse, native + migrating birds at BSB nature preserve. Nature conservation facts: Many birds are migrating. The North American Robin Turdus migratorius migrates through the Texas Hill Country easily watched on guided tours at BSB nature preserve birding trails. The Golden cheeked Warbler, an endangered bird, breeds in the Texas Hill Country, no other place on earth. Golden cheeked Warblers need Texas Hill Country trees, plants, mature junipers to build a nest. BSB nature reserve preserves habitat for Golden cheeked Warbler = GCW - Nature conservation, nature education is important to live in harmony with nature, to protect globally endangered species through international nature protection programs. Nature conservation facts: Many birds are migrating. The North American Robin Turdus migratorius migrates through the Texas Hill Country easily watched on guided tours at BSB nature preserve birding trails. Cliff swallows eating insects while flying. Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation nature encyclopedia websites provide facts about the migratory Cliff swallows, how to protect birds. Update your nature education to be a good conservationist
Golden Cheeked
Warbler

Robin
Hummingbirds
Cardinals
Scrub Jay
Cedar Waxwing
Road Runner
Cliff Swallows

Insects
BSB Nature encyclopedia: mosquito’s life cycle, understanding how a mosquito bites, why, how malaria spreads, how to prevent malaria disease. Balance nature to prevent illnesses = protect humans - better information reduces malaria
BSB nature conservation through nature education: knowledge about butterflies, to understand why butterflies are part of nature's balance, how to help butterflies to survive, what kills a butterfly. nature conservation through education leads to higher butterfly survival rates
Monarch
butterfly

ocean biology: coral reefs are essential for life on Earth. Earth needed corals to produce oxygen, to stabilize climate, humans need ocean food. Coral reefs host 50% of sea life. Bear Springs Blossom's international ocean conservation + protection plan provides information on corals, marine life, protecting earth oceans. Facts about coral reefs, coral composition, how to reduce ocean pollution

Mammals
Conservation education explain why to protect oceans, protect whales + dolphins from over-fishing to over-polluting seas. Oceans stabilize climate, whales balance the life in oceans. Nature conservation dolphins, reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change + global warming internationally. Earth's ocean food chain needs whales, dolphins + porpoises. Earth oceans food feeds over one billion humans
BSB Nature conservation online education: Black bears in US for two million years: Black Bears, lat. Ursus americanus, US native, Southern United States black bears remain in protected mountains, woodlands, parks, preserves. Bears who wander outside nature preserves to find new habitats are endangered
Online education Biology: Buffalo Latin bison bison once roamed on US prairies without overgrazing, destroying land, conserving grass prairies. Buffaloes, huge mammals, food + living for Native Americans
Science base conservation through history education to keep Nature beautiful: Humans have endangered the life of many bats, killed many with pesticides and habitat loss
Overgrazing destroys land, endangers our children's future causing climate change. Overgrazing is related to human health problems, overgrazed meadows reduce drinking water supply, multiply water contamination, storms, floods, hurricanes, typhoons. Overgrazing causes erosion, destroys native plants that feed wildlife, endangers humans food supply

Nature Conservation
nature conservation: Safe future to children, grandchildren, breathable air, healthy drinking water, good climate, without violent weather, storms, floods. Nature conservation: Learn online to reduce air + water pollution, reduce co2 levels, lower the impact of global warming + climate change to keep Nature beautiful
International Water conservation for healthy drinking water is part of BSB nature education classes, clean ocean water, natural rivers, creeks without pollution. Water conservation through fewer chemicals, water treatment plans. Water conservation = balanced climate, without food shortages. Polluted water causes higher food prices. Water conservation: affordable, efficient if all conserve. Learn how to reduce water waste, water pollution. Humans need to drink water. Drinking water has many health benefits. Earth's permanent water cycle provides rain, floods, clouds, mist. BSB volunteers teach how to reduce water consumption, conserve water
Biology Economy: soil conservation to secure food supply, drinking water supply. Soil conservation for a balanced climate. Reduce erosion, chemical soil contamination = soil conservation. CO2 levels is in soil, disturbed soil causes climate change

Science Biology online: Nature in Texas with many native plant varieties, native trees + wildlife endangered, many solutions on nature preservation issues, to restore Nature, to conserve natural bird habitat, to enjoy beautiful photos, and see how great Nature protection based on updated nature education can be

keep Bandera beautiful - Texas Hill Country once beautiful, needs Nature protection. BSB Nature preserve offers guided tours, shows pure, unspoiled nature, teaches understanding. Climate change, air pollution, water pollution, erosion control, recycling are Nature Conservation issues. Bandera native plants, birds, butterflies, native trees, controlling soil loss, erosion. Walk guided tours on environmental education trails: update your Nature education. Learn about Texas Hill Country birds, flora + fauna. Uncontrolled development endangers Bandera's Nature, endangers balance of fragile Hill Country lime stone habitats
History of Bandera, about Bandera County Texas Hill Country. Bandera cowboy capital of the world. Urban sprawl endangers beautiful landscape of Bandera County, natural areas + parks + preserve. About water conservation through nature education online. Well problems because of sinking aquifer levels
All about
Bandera TX
Cowboys
River + Parks

Peter + Marianne
Bonenberger offer a
very personal
education experience.
Impressions Texas Hill Country Bandera Texas Nature education programs online
BSB Science classes online: Geology of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Preserve, covering the Triassic, the Cretaceous period. Geology explains the Cretaceous period. How TX limestone layers were deposited by warm shallow oceans teaming with sea life - geology explains how the Balcones fault zone changed Texas
Nature Trails
TX Hill Country
history education online: native Americans lived for twelve thousand years in Texas hunting along creeks + rivers. Many arrowheads show different time periods, environmental education on arrowhead shape, arrowhead material

Bear Springs Blossom Nature preserve has twelve nature trails, four birding trails - published in Texas Parks and Wildlife Heart of Texas Nature Birding trail map - Nature Center lecture room offers knowledge about nature preserves, about wilderness, education trails, geology - informs what to expect on guided tours. On BSB trails you can enjoy Texas outdoors, have fun hiking, birding, walking Texas Hill Country nature trails, gaining knowledge with lectures or walking wilderness trails, birding trails

Nature photos Texas Hill Country. Photos of native plants, cacti, native grasses, blossoms pictures, wildflowers photos. Experience beautiful Nature with Bear Springs Blossom photos, many photo shots, impressions of native plants, common wildflowers, wild flowers conserve by nature conservation
Education Center Bear Springs Blossom Nature Preserve, Bandera County, Texas Hill Country. Photos + pictures: how to recognize native plants, native trees as Spanish oaks, Escarpment cherry, lacey oak, Texas persimmons, trees that store the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide co2, mountain laurel, native grasses, little bluestem, bushy bluestem, Indian grass, lindheimers muhly. Preserve Nature: use erosion control, create beautiful landscapes where flora, fauna will flourish and all life is preserved. Photos of BSB Nature preserve, southern Texas Hill Country, maintained by Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation
Photos Preserve
More Photos

BSB News
newsletter of Bear Springs Blossom Nature conservation, electronic newspaper on nature conservation issues, education of pollution facts, water facts, recycling facts, newsletter electronically to save trees
vacation Texas Hill Country: San Antonio - many parks, natural areas, nature preserves, birding, river walk, hiking, biking, and all favorites for visitors. Texas Hill Country guided tours - Bandera cowboy capital of the world
Photos San Antonio TX, southern Texas Hill Country Balcones fault zone. San Antonio Texas, the famous river walk, Alamo, missions, San Antonio Texas 30 miles south east of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Preserve

Wildflowers
wildlife
Nature Preserve


BSB members
save money

Marianne Bonenberger
Bio
Peter Bonenberger
Master Conservationist
Lone Star Land Stewards
welcome YOU in our family of Nature lovers!
BSB Science biology, chemistry, geography, physics: Online education by Lone Star Land Stewards Peter Bonenberger + Marianne Bonenberger, science teacher care for the land, land restoration, securing our future with updated nature education. Nature conservation explained with Nature education online, distant learning, public lectures, affordable distant learning online classes with advice on environmental issues, how greenhouse gas works in Earth atmosphere, how to conserve Nature, how to live a sustainable life, environmental solutions
Peter Bonenberger + Marianne Bonenberger provide fun-filled multimedia lectures about earth's natural environment
BSB Distant learning: Updated nature education will not change you into Albert Einstein, but better memories, more brain capacity often helps to have a better life
Laws of Nature
Conservation education Earth's environment: fractals in Nature, nature in a perfect balance, beauty
WHAT did God say?

free Video clips on nature conservation, free video lectures by Peter Bonenberger on solar water heating, video clip on mulching, videos on how to use native plants, how to make mulch, mulching, video clip impressions of native plants, Texas Hill Country video, video about swallows. join nature conservation nature education group for distance learning or visit BSB fun-filled multimedia lectures. Online education information how to prepare for coming changes. BSB nonprofit organization protects all living beings with nature education, conservation education, water conservation, soil education, pollution education, recycling education. Updated nature education for good drinking water, healthy air, with nature conservation + online nature education classes. Free nature encyclopedia for international environmental news, science reports, online nature conservation newsletter. Good conservationists update their environmental education online with BSB

BSB Geology education: science of earth rocks. Geology, Cretaceous period, continental plates, Gondwana land. Warm shallow oceans with sea-life producing lime. Geology explaining movements of continental plates changing Earth, creating volcanoes, ridges
Former NASA employee Robert Taylor helps as Vice president and BSB Master Conservationist. NASA studies help to understand air pollution, climate change, environmental disasters. NASA space satellites provide information. NASA's scientists explain how climate change + pollution changes life on earth, destroying our world - NASA science video photo updates nature education
WHY wait? ACT now! Update your Nature education - Join + get personal advice + have a better life!
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All material on 1000+ BSB web-pages is intended to advance understanding of the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of Nature conservation. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed an interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from our websites for purposes of your own that go beyond "fair use," you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. If you are the owner of copyrighted material(s) appearing on this site, and wish it to be removed, please contact us directly.