Sitemap BSB Education Lectures Patient Earth Search Germany has a lot of industry. Filters, efficient machines reduce air pollution, water contamination. Rules and laws against erosion try to reduce climate change damage with renewable energy
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Logo of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization providing nature conservation education to all countries on Earth. BSB is an international charitable nonprofit organization dedicated to conservation education, providing educational web-pages, to see the big picture, to have a better life. Biology teaches that bears once were part of the food chain, balancing Nature. Biology provides the understanding how life works on Earth, and what is good for us humans, and what can harm us and our children and grandchildren wants to Signature of Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, international charitable nonprofit organization with the motto Keep Earth beautiful, offering conservation education worldwide. BSB stands for worldwide education, for providing people with updated knowledge, facts. Learn to understand Earth's environment: affordable education is offered by our education portal, where we explain: What is education, and why is an updated education very important for a safe life. We explain nature, give nature quotes, offer educational advice on the question: What is nature, how to keep beautiful nature, and why the balance of nature is so important! International nature education is the task of BSB to provide environmental education. Conservation trough education is important. Continuing education is very important to have a better life, the basis of understanding life

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About BSB - - Contact BSB Bear Springs Blossom news are global news. News that are updated, accurate, not manipulated, just the latest news. World news because we all need to live on this one planet, international news with conservation news headlines. Conservation of Earth is only possible with an updated nature education. Nature conservation to protect the future of humans is our goal. BSB Earth news provide information to update your conservation education which can reduce the impact of climate change, can give people a happier life, can people give a more secure future
BSB Conservation education online graphic: salt crystal dissolved in water, crystals are often dissolved, conservation education explains how water can dissolve so many materials. United States has many shore lines, where salty water come in contact with fresh water. High water pollution with ocean and fresh water, low drinking water quality common. BSB Conservation education online: Learn to understand Earth's environment: Work with us to keep water quality usable for humans. Better informed industry leaders can raise profits with green technology. High water pollution, high water waste, low water quality, small-scale understanding of natural connections, science based nature education is needed. BSB Environmental conservation education online. Humans need Nature education to stay healthy, protected from chemical pollution. To understand Earth's natural environment we need to learn and study. earth is our only home, the blue planet we need to survive - Nature education on air. Get science based facts. BSB has to report bad behavior, destruction of nature, polluting air, soil and water, all the time. News on Ocean conservation + Water conservation is needed for protection of all life, flora + fauna on Earth. News on environmental changes in oceans worldwide hint to the coming changes for humans. Nature conservation news tells you about Earth' environment. Environmental news to protect air + water + soil + food. BSB-research published in these news helps to keep Nature beautiful + to secure our future to give people a better life! Global issue water pollution: on water, explaining the problems of water pollution. Environmental education on Earth pollution, the consequences of ocean pollution, population growth, more pollution, more drinking water, lower water quality, more energy, water conservation, Earth's spheres unbalanced. The human body is more than 70% water, water controls virtually every aspect of our health. Water we drink, water we shower in, water we cook with, prepare juices, teas, coffee; water affects our health significantly. Water is the foundation of the body. If the foundation is of poor quality, strength and longevity will not be achieved. water conservation is very important, water is polluted + contaminated. Humans get sick because of water pollution, plants die of polluted air + water, animals cannot reproduce because of polluted water, Earth's children are endangered. Keep earth beautiful - Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, protection of all life, flora + fauna on Earth = human protection, protection of all water on Earth. Learn online about water conservation issues, how to secure your future, how to stay alive with violent weather, floods, earthquakes and storms. Millions of years earth balanced a natural environment. Global warming endangers the biodiversity of human food. Conservation views and insights, news:  Bear Springs Blossom Nature Conservation, protection of all life, flora + fauna on Earth = human protection, conservation of all water on Earth = human protection, conservation of all soil on Earth = human protection. Millions of years earth balanced a natural environment. Global warming endangers the energy balance. Conservation of all water on Earth = human protection, conservation of all soil on Earth = human protection through affordable conservation education online to keep nature beautiful. BSB-research + how to keep Nature beautiful + how to secure our future + how to have a better life!
Salt crystal dissolved in water

Care for Earth to have a safe future
Care for Earth = Care for Humans
Earth is changing

Water Salinity

Salt in the water

Earth's Oceans are salty
Water conservation education: how much of Earth's surface in covered by water

Imagine, 71 % of Earth is covered by oceans!
swimming in oceans is different because of water salinity
Did you ever swim in the ocean?
If your answer is yes you probably found out that the water tasted very different than the tab water at home or the water you buy in the store. It tastes really salty.
Fresh water has dissolved salts in it too, but not nearly as many as ocean water!
When scientists talk about salt in the water they call it salinity.
In oceanography the salinity is not expressed in percent, but in parts per thousand.
Chemical analyses of solutions uses for salinity parts per million ppm.

water salinity values in earth oceans

The salinity of oceans ranges from 35 to 37 ppt.
That's the same as saying 3.5% to 3.7% of ocean water is salt.

How does the salt get in the ocean?
water washes salt out of materials containing salt, dissolved by rain water drained into rivers and oceans, evaporating out of the oceans, turning back to rain, the water cycle
Salinity is key to understanding interactions among the ocean, climate, and water cycle.

Most of the salt in the sea comes from minerals that were part of the land. When rivers flow over rocks, minerals get dissolved by the water. Part of these minerals is salt later deposited by the rivers into our oceans. Other sources of salt are solid and gaseous materials escaping from the Earth's crust through volcanic vents.
Conservation education on Salinity: volcanic eruptions and material contains salt, dissolved by rain water drained into rivers and oceans
When water evaporates, it leaves the salts and other minerals behind. This makes the water left behind more salty.
When fresh water is added for example by rivers, or precipitation, the salinity of the ocean will decrease. That explains why some oceans are less salty than others Factors like the melting of ice, the inflow of river water, rain, snowfall, evaporation, wind, wave motion and currents affect the salinity.
How do we measure salinity?
Salinity is often defined by measuring how well electricity travels through the water. This is called conductivity of the water. Water that has dissolved salt in it will conduct electricity better than water with no dissolved salt. The more salt is dissolved in the water, the better the water conducts electricity. The salt content of the water can be measured very precisely using the conductivity method. Scientists measure salinity using a CTD Instrument. The abbreviation stands for conductivity, temperature, depth.
ctd instrument graphic, salinity measured by conductivity, temperature and depth ctd instrument graphic, salinity measured by conductivity, temperature and depth
Salinity can also be measured with a hand held refractometer. A refractometer measures the change of direction or bending of the light when it passes from air to water. Light moves slower in water than in air. The more salt is in the water, the slower the light moves.
Conservation education online: a refractometer measures salinity with light bending

You can see the effect of light bending also called refracting when it passes from the water into the air by putting a pencil in a glass of water.
water bends light, see the light bending in this photo
It looks like the pencil bends where it enters the water. But the pencil is not really bent. The light we see has bent as it moves from water to air.
the salinity of water can be measured with a hydrometer, because salt water has a different gravity, or uplift,than fresh water Hydrometer often used
to test the water in
sea water aquariums
of the salinity of the
aquarium water is good
for the fish.

Hydrometer - The specific gravity or relative density of a liquid can be measured.

All water contains dissolved chemicals and minerals that are referred to as "salts".
Talking about salt in the water:
About 90 percent of the salt is called sodium chloride, or ordinary table salt.

Chlorine + Sodium
Magnesium + Sulfur
Calcium + Potassium
are the other major dis-solvents of our ocean.
1 cubic foot of seawater contains about 2.2 pounds of salt, but 1 cubic foot of fresh water from Lake Superior contains 0.01 pound of salt, or about one sixth of an ounce.
That means sea water is about 220 times saltier than a fresh water lake.
Seawater is a lot saltier than the water in the rivers.

Protecting the flow of freshwater to estuaries is critically important. A special amount of freshwater is needed to ensure rivers continue to maintain historical salinity patterns in estuaries. Dams and using huge amounts of river water for irrigation have already disturbed this balance in many places!
estuaries are full of life, producing huge amounts of food for humans, balancing the fresh water and sea water habitats
WHY is the right salinity in estuaries so important?
Imagine: A fish lays its eggs onto the ground. With the right salinity these eggs stay there and after a while young fish will be born.
Imagine: The salinity is changing. The eggs on the ground are lifted up, floating on the surface, not protected anymore. A lot of animals will eat the eggs.
In consequence: NO young fish, the next fish generation is killed.

Another problem occurs when salty water enters surface waters through groundwater systems. This saltwater intrusion is seen often when groundwater is pumped for use as public water supply, allowing saltwater to migrate inland.
We need to conserve groundwater resources -water conservation on land is critical to protecting life in rivers and oceans!
What we know about salinity:

Salt affects water's freezing point. That is the reason we put salt on roads as a de-icing mechanism.

Salt affects the Earth's ocean currents. The North Atlantic is a key area for sinking of dense, cold, high-salinity water masses that drive "thermohaline" = temperature-salinity circulation. Earth's climate is affected by these ocean currents.

Icebergs form in polar regions and are made of fresh water. Sea ice is frozen seawater has zero salinity = fresh water. Melting icebergs change salinity.

El Nino and La Nina are both influenced by ocean salinity

Ocean salinity is changed by hurricanes which dump hundreds of trillions of gallons of freshwater on the ocean surface.

Lets have a Quiz about salinity
What do you think?
Which lake has more salt in it?
Lake Michigan or the lake next to Salt Lake City?


Yes, Salt Lake City got its name from its salty lake
300 times more salty than Lake Michigan

What do you think?
Why is sea water less salty near the equator?



Water is less salty because of the abundance of equatorial precipitation throughout the year.

What do you think?
Why is the salinity of the seawater lower towards the poles?



The salinity of water is lower because the salt water around the poles is diluted by melting ice. Additionally, there is only little evaporation in these areas.

What do you think?
Where do we find the most salty water?



The saltiest water with 40 o/oo occurs in the Red Sea, where evaporation is very high and only a little bit of new water comes from rain and rivers.
nature along rivers is beautiful when no trash contaminates the water changing the balance of water life
Why do we need to protect Nature?

What you can clearly see:
Water, rivers are beautiful!

Rivers transport water to the next lake, next stream, always ending up in an ocean or sea!
Along these water lines and shores we can relax, play, watch the birds, discover aquatic plants, enjoy nature and have a good time with family and friends..

That's why it is important to protect water - without healthy water Nature cannot exist!
Nature Conservation protects the water, the plants that need water, the animals and humans that only can live a few days without good drinking water!!

Save Earth - BSB email: edu@keepearthbeautiful.org

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